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These are largely modular; "berhasil" means "to succeed", for example. So a word can become very long.
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Both have been influenced by Sanskrit, Arabic and Javanese. In Indonesia, spelling reforms in and have officially eliminated several vestiges of Dutch in the otherwise very phonetic spelling, and the writing system is now nearly identical to Bahasa Malaysia.
The use of singular form doesn't guarantee a single object; the phrase "Ada mobil di depan" Como ponerse guapo yahoo dating is; car; in; front may mean 1 or more cars.
In general, there are no plurals, grammatical gender, or verb conjugation for person, number or tense, all of which are expressed with adverbs or tense indicators: However, the older forms remain in use to some extent especially in names and have been noted in parenthesis below.
Indonesian has been influenced by Dutch, while Bahasa Malaysia has been influenced by English. It is written as an 'e', which can sometimes be confusing. Stress usually falls on the second-to-last syllable, so in two-syllable words the first syllable is stressed.
When plurals are in use, they're often simply a repetition of the singular form, connected by a dash or, in shortened informal Indonesian, indicated with a "2" at the end.
Indonesian is very easy to pronounce: Indonesian is closely related to Bahasa Malaysia, but the main difference is the vocabulary: For example, "mobil-mobil" cars is simply the plural form of "mobil" car.
One can also choose to use other words, especially in informal situations, such as "banyak" many instead: The repetitive plural form is most often found in writing. For example there is a base word hasil which means "result" or "success".
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Pronunciation guide[ edit ] Indonesian newspeak One legacy of the Sukarno-Suharto era still affecting Indonesia is an inordinate fondness for vaguely Orwellian Newspeak-y abbreviations, chosen more for pronouncability than logic or comprehensibility.
Even the socialistic exhortation to stand on your own feet berdiri diatas kaki sendiri can be snappily rendered as berdikari and the humble fried rice nasi goreng can be chopped up into nasgor!
Grammar[ edit ] The basic word order of Indonesian is similar to English: A characteristic of Indonesian is that it is a so-called agglutinative language, which means that affixes are all attached to a word stem. For example, to state your intention to find a train station, simply "saya mau pergi ke stasiun" I; want to; go; to; the station is both clear and polite.
If all else fails, simply using standard subject-verb-object form and common particles, while disregarding prefixes and suffixes, is generally unambiguous. Bahasa Indonesia is the official language and lingua franca of Indonesiaand also widely spoken in East Timor.
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With over million speakers, there are a lot of people to talk to in Indonesian. Some words don't exhibit plural forms; to be safe, simply use the singular form.
One peculiarity of the spelling is the lack of a separate sign to denote the schwa.