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Parrennas' book is based not only on rich, empirical data, but also on theoretical framework. While the common assumption has been that these hostess bars are hotbeds of sexual trafficking, Parrenas quickly discovered a different world of working migrant women, there by choice, and, most importantly, where none were coerced into prostitution.

They are the breadwinners of the family, sending remittances home just as millions of migrants from the sacrifice 1986 online dating global south do.

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But this is not to say that the hostesses were not vulnerable in other ways. Recommended for anyone interested in human trafficking, labor as an export, remittance economy, class based gender roles and the socially constructed nature of the phenomenon.

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She has received more than invitations to share her work at universities, government and nongovernmental institutions throughout the US, Europe and Asia. Most books on sex trafficking, regardless of whether they support or reject the dominant antitrafficking paradigm, rarely provide a nuanced understanding of the experiences of the women who engage in commercial sex overseas.

It is not the jobs themselves, but the regulation that makes migrants susceptible to trafficking. She asks Filipina hostesses working in Japan if stopping their temporary migration solves a social problem—which, according to them, it does not since they are not trafficked in the first place.

Illicit Flirtations challenges our understandings of human trafficking and calls into question the U. The number of visas issued to Filipina women to work as hostesses in Japan was cut drastically.

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Since receiving this global attention, the number of hostesses entering Japan has dropped by nearly 90 percent—from more than 80, in to just over 8, today. Illicit Flirtations is the exception. As undocumented workers, however, the women are more susceptible to abuse. Scholars and policy-makers should take note.

Consequently, for more than a decade the world community, under the leadership of the U.

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Illicit Flirtations challenges our understandings of human trafficking and calls into question the U. They mix business, body, and heart bowes lyons dating divas complex ways, each making peace with her own mix in her own way.

Since receiving this global attention, the number of hostesses rhacel parrenas illicit flirtations perfume Japan has dropped by nearly 90 percent--from more than 80, in to just over 8, today. Instead, according to the author, sending and receiving governments should treat these women as contract workers, not victims to be rescued, and help them to gain control of their labor and migration.

To write this book, the author herself worked as a hostess in a Tokyo nightclub; her immersion in the world lends the book powerful authenticity. She went into it thinking that while sexual harassment was part of the job but prostitution was not and was correct.

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This is an extraordinary book whose audience will go well beyond the specialists of the subject. For instance, a moral conservative working at an amoral club is likely to confront serious moral violations at work.

Since receiving this global attention, the number of hostesses entering Japan has dropped by nearly 90 percent—from more than 80, in to just over 8, today. The author as a hostess: Or, get it for Kobo Super Points!

Bold and daring, this engaging ethnography breaks theoretical ground by advancing our understanding of the relationship between the economic and the sexual, focusing on global exchanges of people as well as cash.

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Labor, Migration, and Sex Trafficking in Tokyohttp: Ko-lin Chin November The massive arrival of Filipina hostesses in Japan in the early s was often cited by antitrafficking crusaders as proof that large numbers of young, innocent women from poor countries were trafficked to rich countries and forced to engage in prostitution.

State Department declared Filipina hostesses in Japan the largest group of sex trafficked persons in the world. Parrenas worked alongside hostesses in a working-class club in Tokyo's red-light district, serving drinks, singing karaoke, and entertaining her customers, including members of the yakuza, the Japanese crime syndicate.

State Department declared Filipina hostesses in Japan the largest group of sex trafficked persons in the world.

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With fewer visas being issued the opportunity is disappearing and for some the only option is to enter or remain in Japan illegallynow, though, they are more For many the only available option now is to enter or remain in Japan illegally.

Boldly departing from standard accounts that treat all migrant hostesses as equal victims of sexual trafficking, Illicit Flirtations presents a nuanced portrayal of the women's multiple labor and sentimental experiences.

In Japan, a hostess is not necessarily engaged in paid sex; Professor Parrenas, herself, worked briefly as a hostess in a club controlled by a yakuza Japanese organized crime group.

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She did months of fieldwork working as a hostess in a Yakuza controlled club to gain the trust of other hostesses. The result is a highly readable and informative book with firsthand accounts of the work and lives of Filipina hostesses in Tokyo.

Her research on women's labor migration has been featured in various news media outlets including: To subscribe, simply click Join Now. To some, this might suggest a victory for the global anti-trafficking campaign, but Rhacel Parrenas counters that this drastic decline--which stripped thousands of migrants of their livelihoods--is a setback.

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In the book, the author portrays in extensive detail the social organization of the migration process, the nature of servitude, and other vulnerabilities of migration. While contesting the labeling of Filipina hostesses as trafficked persons, she also refuses to dismiss their vulnerability to forced labor.

Comparing the situations of female and transgender hostesses also provides an excellent intersectional analysis of hostessing as, for example, transgender hostesses reported much more satisfaction with their work conditions than did female hostesses overall.

Rhacel Salazar Parrenas Reviewer: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America "Illicit Flirtations draws on ethnographic immersion to illuminate the little understood reality of Filipina hostesses in Japan.

Notes from Home and Work "Illicit Flirtations brings together riveting ethnography, conceptual innovation, and significant policy implications. She suggests that, in order to avoid labeling Filipina entertainers in Japan as either free subject migrant or enslaved subject trafficked personwe should consider the process of their transnational movement as indentured mobility, so that we can capture the complex dynamics of coercion and choice, or subjugation and progress.

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This book gives a long overdue look into the real world of those labeled as trafficked. This book prompts us to rethink what we thought we knew about citizenship, intimacy, and work in transnational contexts.

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Parrenas makes a good point when she writes: But this is not to say that the hostesses were not vulnerable in other ways.

The book brings together issues of gender and labor migration with discussion of human trafficking, contributing the theoretical concept of 'indentured mobility' to describe the hostesses' situation.